How to Create Interactive Web Programs with Java
Excerpted from Sams Teach Yourself Programming with Java in 24 Hours by Rogers Cadenhead. ISBN 0672328445, Copyright © 2006. Used with the permission of Sams Publishing.
Now that Java has made the transition from a child prodigy to an established language, it is being used for all kinds of large-scale business software and other applications. However, for some people, the core appeal of the language remains a type of program that Java made possible: the applet.
Applets are programs designed to run as part of a World Wide Web page. When a Java applet is encountered on a page, it is downloaded to the user’s computer and begins running.
During this hour you’ll be introduced to applet programming and Java Web Start, a way to install and run Java software from within a web browser.
Programming applets with Java is much different from creating applications with Java. Because applets must be downloaded from a page each time they are run, they’re smaller than most applications to reduce download time. Also, because applets run on the computer of the person using the applet, they have numerous security restrictions in place to prevent malicious or damaging code from being run.
The following topics will be covered:
• Displaying information in an applet
• Stopping and starting an applet
• Putting an applet on a web page
• Customizing an applet with parameters on a web page
• Receiving parameters in an applet
• Running applets with the Java Plug-in
Standard Applet Methods
The first step in the creation of an applet is to make it a subclass of JApplet, a class that’s part of the Swing package, javax.swing. An applet is treated as a visual window inside a web page, so JApplet is part of Swing alongside clickable buttons, scrollbars, and other components of a program’s user interface.
JApplet is a subclass of Applet, a class in the java.applet package. Being part of this hierarchy enables the applets you write to use all the behavior and attributes they need to be run as part of a web page. Before you begin writing any other statements in your applets, they will be able to interact with a web browser, load and unload themselves, redraw their window in response to changes in the browser window, and handle other necessary tasks.
In applications, programs begin running with the first statement inside the main()block statement and end with the last closing bracket (}) that closes out the block. There is no main() method in a Java applet, so there is no set starting place for the program. Instead, an applet has a group of standard methods that are handled in response to specific events as the applet runs.
The following are the events that could prompt one of the applet methods to be handled:
• The program is loaded for the first time, which causes the applet’s init() and start() methods to be called.
• Something happens that requires the applet window to be redisplayed, which causes the applet’s paint() method to be called.
• The program is stopped by the browser, which calls the applet’s stop() method.
• The program restarts after a stop, which calls the start() method.
• The program is unloaded as it finishes running, which calls the destroy()method.
The following is an example of a bare-bones applet:
public class Skeleton extends javax.swing.JApplet {
// program will go here
Unlike applications, applet class files must be public because the JApplet class is also public. (If your applet uses other class files of your own creation, they do not have to be declared public.)
Your applet’s class inherits all the methods that are handled automatically when needed: init(), paint(), start(), stop(), and destroy(). However, none of these methods do anything. If you want something to happen in an applet, you have to override these methods with new versions in your applet program.
Painting an Applet Window
The paint() method is used to display text, shapes, and graphics within the applet window. Whenever something needs to be displayed or redisplayed on the applet window, the paint() method handles the task. You also can force paint() to be handled with the following statement in any method of an applet:
Aside from the use of repaint(), the main time the paint() method is handled is when something changes in the browser or the operating system running the browser. For example, if a user minimizes a web page containing an applet, the paint() method will be called to redisplay everything that was onscreen in the applet when the applet is later restored to full size.
Unlike the other methods you will be learning about during this hour, paint()takes an argument. The following is an example of a simple paint() method:
public void paint(Graphics screen) {
Graphics2D screen2D = (Graphics2D)screen;
// display statements go here
The argument sent to the paint() method is a Graphics object. The Graphics class of objects represents an environment in which something can be displayed, such as an applet window. As you did with Swing programs, you may cast this to a Graphics2D object to employ more sophisticated graphical features.
Later this hour, you’ll learn about drawString(), a method for the display of text that’s available in both the Graphics and Graphics2D classes.
If you are using a Graphics or Graphics2D object in your applet, you have to add the following import statements before the class statement at the beginning of the source file:
import java.awt.Graphics;
import java.awt.Graphics2D;

Initializing an Applet
The init() method is handled once—and only once—when the applet is run. As a result, it’s an ideal place to set up values for any objects and variables that are needed for the applet to run successfully. This method is also a good place to set up fonts, colors, and the screen’s background color. Here’s an example:
public void init() {
FlowLayout flo = new FlowLayout();
JButton run = new JButton(“Run”);
If you are going to use a variable in other methods, it should not be created inside an init() method because it will only exist within the scope of that method.
For example, if you create an integer variable called displayRate inside the init()method and try to use it in the paint() method, you’ll get an error when you attempt to compile the program. Create any variables you need to use throughout a class as object variables right after the class statement and before any methods.
Starting and Stopping an Applet
At any point when the applet program starts running, the start() method will be handled. When a program first begins, the init() method is followed by the start() method. After that, in many instances there will never be a cause for the start() method to be handled again. In order for start() to be handled a second time or more, the applet has to stop execution at some point.
The stop() method is called when an applet stops execution. This event can occur when a user leaves the web page containing the applet and continues to another page. It also can occur when the stop() method is called directly in a program.
Destroying an Applet
The destroy() method is an opposite of sorts to the init() method. It is handled just before an applet completely closes down and completes running.
This method is used when something has been changed during a program that should be restored to its original state. It’s another method you’ll use more often with animation than with other types of programs.
Putting an Applet on a Web Page
Applets are placed on a web page in the same way that anything unusual is put on a page: HTML markup tags describe the applet, which a web browser loads along with the other parts of the page. If you have used HTML to create a web page, you know that it’s a way to combine formatted text, images, sound, and other elements together. HTML uses special commands called tags that are surrounded by marks, including img for the display of images, p for the insertion of a paragraph mark, and to center the text that follows until a tag is reached.
The performance of some of these HTML tags can be affected by attributes that determine how they function. For example, src is an attribute of the img tag, and it provides the name of the image file that should be displayed. The following is an example of an img tag:

One way to place applets on a web page is by using an applet tag and several attributes. The following is an example of the HTML required to put an applet on a page:

Sorry, no dice … this requires a Java-enabled browser.

The code attribute identifies the name of the applet’s class file. If more than one class file is being used with an applet, code should refer to the main class file that is a subclass of the JApplet class.
If there is no code attribute, all files associated with the applet should be in the same folder as the web page that loads the program. codebase should contain a reference to the folder or subfolder where the applet and any related files can be found. In the preceding example, codebase indicates that the StripYahtzee applet can be found in the javadir subfolder.
The height and width attributes designate the exact size of the applet window on the web page. It must be big enough to handle the things you are displaying in your applet.
In between the opening tag and the closing tag, you can provide an alternate of some kind for web users whose browser software cannot run Java programs (less than two percent of all web users run browsers that fall into this group).
In the preceding example, the text “Sorry, no dice…this requires a Java-enabled browser” is displayed in place of the applet on a browser such as Lynx, which does not support Java. You can put instructions here on how to download a Java-enabled browser. You also can include hyperlinks and other HTML elements.
Another useful attribute, align, designates how an applet will be displayed in relation to the surrounding material on the page, including text and graphics. The value align=”left” lines up the applet to the left of adjacent page elements and align=”right” lines it up to the right.
A Sample Applet
This hour’s first project is an applet that displays the string “Saluton mondo!”, the traditional Esperanto greeting that is becoming more traditional by the hour. You’ll take a look at how applets are structured by re-creating the Saluton application from Hour 2, “Writing Your First Program,” as a program that can run on a web page.
Load your word processor and create a new file called Enter the text of Listing 17.1 into the file and save it when you’re done.

This applet does not need to use the start(), stop(), or destroy() methods, so they are not included in the program. Compile the program with the javac compiler tool, if you’re an JDK user, or another tool.
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Drawing in An Applet Window
Text is displayed in an applet window by using the drawString() method of the Graphics2D class, which draws text in a graphical user interface component. The drawString() method is similar in function to the System.out.println()method that displays information to the system’s standard output device.
Before you can use the drawString() method, you must have a Graphics or Graphics2D object that represents the applet window.
The paint() method of all applets includes a Graphics object as its only argument, which can be cast to a Graphics2D object:
Graphics2D screen2D = (Graphics2D)screen;
When you have created a Graphics2D object like this, you can call its drawString() method to display text on the area represented by the object.
The following three arguments are sent to drawString():
• The text to display, which can be several different strings and variables strung together with the + operator
• The x position (in an (x,y) coordinate system) where the string should be displayed
• The y position where the string should be displayed
The (x,y) coordinate system in an applet is used with several methods. It begins with the (0,0) point in the upper-left corner of the applet window. Figure 17.1 shows how the (x,y) coordinate system works in conjunction with the statement on Line 12 of

Testing the SalutonApplet Program
Although you have compiled the SalutonApplet program into a class file, you cannot run it using a Java interpreter such as java. If you do, you’ll get an error message looking like this:
Exception in thread “main” java.lang.NoSuchMethodError: main
The error occurs because a Java interpreter runs applications by calling its main() method. Applets don’t include this method. Instead, to run an applet, you need to create a web page that loads the applet. To create a web page, open up a new file on your word processor and call it SalutonApplet.html. Enter Listing 17.2 and then save the file.

All applets you write can be tested with the appletviewer tool that comes with the Java Development Kit. You can see the output of the SalutonApplet applet by typing the following:
appletviewer SalutonApplet.html
One thing to note about appletviewer is that it only runs the applets that are included in a web page, and does not handle any of the other elements such as text and images.
Applets can also be loaded by web browsers, if they are equipped with the Java Plug-in. To attempt this at a command line, type the following command:
You can also choose File, Open from the browser’s menu to find and open the page.
Figure 17.2 shows a screen capture of SalutonApplet loaded in Mozilla Firefox.

If you can’t get this applet to run in Firefox or another web browser, the most likely reason is that the browser needs the Java Plug-in.
The Java Plug-in
Though popular web browsers began including their own Java interpreters with the first release of the language in the mid-’90s, these interpreters failed to keep current.
To make it possible for Java 2 applets to run in current browsers, Sun Microsystems offers the Java Plug-in, a substitute for a browser’s built-in interpreter that supports the most up-to-date version of the language.
A plug-in is a program that works in conjunction with a web browser to expand its functionality. Plug-ins handle a type of data that the browser normally could not handle. Apple offers a plug-in to display QuickTime movies, Macromedia distributes a plug-in to run Flash animation files, and many other kinds of special content are supported in this manner.
If you installed the Java Development Kit, you were given a chance to install the Java Plug-in at the same time.
The Java Plug-in runs Java applets in place of the web browser’s Java interpreter. Once the Java Plug-in is installed, all future Java 2 applets will run automatically if they specify that the Plug-in should be used to run them.
The plug-in is part of the Java Runtime Environment, which can be downloaded at no cost from Sun’s Java site at the address
Sending Parameters from a Web Page
Now that you have had some experience writing computer programs, you might be feeling one of the strongest emotions of the programmer: compiler angst. Even though it takes no more than 15 seconds to compile most programs, that time can seem interminable when you’re debugging a program. Write, save, compile, Aargh—an error! Write, save, compile, Aargh! Write, save, compile, Aargh!… As this vicious cycle repeats itself, it’s easy to become world-weary as a program is compiled and recompiled.
One of the driving forces behind parameter use in Java applets is the fear and loathing of compilation. Parameters enable you to change elements of an applet without editing or recompiling anything. They also make the program more useful.
Parameters are stored as part of the web page that contains an applet. They are created using the HTML tag param and its two attributes: name and value. You can have more than one param tag with an applet, but all of them must be between the opening tag and the closing tag, which also support parameters).
The following is an applet tag that includes several parameters:

This example could be used to send news headlines to an applet that scrolls them across the screen. Because news changes all the time, the only way to create a program of this kind is with parameters.
You use the name attribute to give the parameter a name. This attribute is comparable to giving a variable a name. The value attribute gives the named parameter a value.
Receiving Parameters in the Applet
You have to do something in your Java program to retrieve the parameters on the web page or they will be ignored. The getParameter() method of the JApplet class retrieves a parameter from a param tag on a web page. The parameter name, which is specified with the name attribute on the page, is used as an argument to getParameter(). The following is an example of getParameter() in action:
String display1 = getParameter(“headline1”);
The getParameter() method returns all parameters as strings, so you have to convert them to other types as needed. If you want to use a parameter as an integer, you could use statements such as the following:
int speed;
String speedParam = getParameter(“speed”);
if (speedParam != null) {
speed = Integer.parseInt(speedParam);
This example sets the speed variable by using the speedParam string. You have to test for null strings before setting speed because the parseInt() method cannot work with a null string. When you try to retrieve a parameter with getParameter() that was not included on a web page with the param tag, it will be sent as null, which is the value of an empty string.
Workshop: Handling Parameters in an Applet
The next project you’ll undertake has little practical value, except perhaps as a taunting device. The ShowWeight applet takes a person’s weight and displays it under several different units. The applet takes two parameters: a weight in pounds, and the name of the person who weighs that amount. The weight is used to figure out the person’s weight in ounces, kilograms, and metric tons, all of which are displayed.
Create a new file with your word processor and give it the name Enter Listing 17.3 into the file. Then save and compile the file.

The init() method is where the two parameters are loaded into the applet. Because they come from the web page as strings, they must be converted into the form you need: a floating-point number for the lbs variable, and a string for name.
Converting a string to a floating-point number requires two steps: converting the string to a Float object and then converting that object to a variable of the type float.

Lines 20–22 are used to convert the lbs variable into different units of measure. Each of these statements has (float) in front of the conversion equation. This is used to cast the result of the equation into a floating-point number.
The paint() method of the applet uses the drawString() method of the Graphics2D class to display a line of text onscreen. The paint() method has three arguments: the text to display, and the x and y positions where the text should be shown.
Before you can test the ShowWeight applet, you need to create a web page that contains the applet. Open up a new file on your word processor and name it ShowWeight.html. Enter Listing 17.4 and save it when you’re done.

Use a web browser equipped with the Java Plug-in to see the ShowWeight applet. This demonstration uses Konishiki as its example because the American-born sumo wrestling champion weighs in at more than 605 pounds, making him the largest of these immodest, bikini-wearing behemoths. You can substitute anyone whose weight is either exemplary or well-known. Figure 17.3 shows an example of output from the applet. As you can see, Konishiki’s workout regimen doesn’t include a lot of fatfree SnackWell’s Devil’s Food Cakes.
To make the applet display a different name along with a different value for the weight parameter, all you have to change is the ShowWeight.html file. The applet itself will continue to work correctly.

Java Web Start
One of the issues you must deal with as a Java programmer is how to make your software available to the people who will be using your work.
Applications require a Java interpreter, so one must either be included with the application, or users must install an interpreter themselves. The easiest solution is to require that users download and install the Java Runtime Environment from Sun’s web site at
Regardless of how you deal with the requirement for an interpreter, you distribute an application like any other program, making it available on a CD, website, or some other means. A user must run an installation program to set it up, if one is available, or copy the files and folders manually.
Applets are easier to make available, because they can be run by web browsers. There are several drawbacks to offering applets instead of applications, most importantly the default security policy for applets, which makes it impossible for them to read and write data on a user’s computer, among other restrictions.
Java supports another way to make applications available to users: Java Web Start, a method of downloading and running applications by clicking links on web pages. Java Web Start, which requires the Java Plug-in, offers a way to install and run applications as if they were applets. Here’s how it works:
• A programmer packages an application into a Java Archive file along with a file that uses the Java Network Launching Protocol (JNLP), part of Java Web Start.
• The file is published on a web server along with a web page that links to that file.
• A user loads the page with a browser and clicks the link.
• If the user does not have the Java Runtime Environment, a dialog box opens asking whether it should be downloaded and installed.
• The Java Runtime Environment installs and runs the program, opening new frames and other interface components like any other application. The program is saved in a cache, so it can be run again later without requiring installation.
To see it in action, visit Sun’s Java Web Start site at javawebstart/demos.html. The Web Start Demos page contains pictures of several Java applications, each with a Launch button you can use to run the application, as shown in Figure 17.4.

Click the Launch button of one of the applications. If you don’t have the Java Runtime Environment yet, a dialog box opens asking whether you would like to download and install it.
The runtime environment includes the Java Plug-in, a Java interpreter that adds support for the current version of the language to browsers such as Internet Explorer and Mozilla. The environment can also be used to run applications, whether or not they make use of Java Web Start.
When an application is run using Java Web Start, a title screen will be displayed on your computer briefly and the application’s graphical user interface will appear.
Figure 17.5 shows one of the demo applications offered by Sun, a military strategy game in which three black dots gang up upon a red dot and attempt to keep it from moving into their territory.

As you can see in Figure 17.5, the application looks no different than any of the applications you created during the preceding 16 hours. Unlike applets, which are presented in conjunction with a web page, applications launched with Java Web Start run in their own windows, as if they were run from a command line.

One thing that’s different about a Java Web Start application is the security that can be offered to users. When an application attempts to do some things such as reading and writing files, the user can be asked for permission.
For example, another one of the demo programs is a text editor. When you try to save a file with this application for the first time, the Security Advisory dialog box opens (see Figure 17.6).

If the user does not permit something, the application will be unable to function fully. The kinds of things that would trigger a security dialog are the same things that are not allowed by default in applets: reading and writing files, loading network resources, and the like.
Once an application has been run by Java Web Start, it is stored in a cache, enabling you to run it again later without installation. The only exception is when a new version of the application has become available. In this circumstance, the new version will be downloaded and installed in place of the existing one automatically.
Using Java Web Start
Any Java application can be run using Java Web Start, as long as the web server that will offer the application is configured to work with the technology. To prepare an application to use Java Web Start, you must save the application’s files in a Java Archive (JAR) file, create a special Java Web Start file for the application, and upload the files to the web server.
The special file that must be created uses Java Network Launching Protocol (JNLP), an XML file format that specifies the application’s main class file, its JAR archive, and other things about the program.

The next project you will undertake is to use Java Web Start to launch and run the LottoMadness application from Hour 15, “Responding to User Input.” To get ready, put a copy of that project’s files in your main Java programming folder. The files you need are LottoEvent.class and LottoMadness.class, though you might also want and, in case you decide to make any changes to the application.
The first thing you must do is package all of an application’s class files into a Java Archive (JAR) file along with any other files it needs. If you are using the Software Development Kit, you can create the JAR file with the following command:
jar -cf LottoMadness.jar LottoEvent.class LottoMadness.class
A JAR file called LottoMadness.jar is created that holds both of the class files.
Next you should create an icon graphic for the application, which will be displayed when it is loaded and used as its icon in menus and desktops. The icon can be in either GIF or JPEG format, and should be 64 pixels wide and 64 pixels tall.
For this project, if you don’t want to create a new icon, you can download lottobigicon.gif from the book’s website. Go to and open the Hour 17 page. Right-click the lottobigicon.gif link and save the file to the same folder as your LottoMadness.jar file.
The final thing you must do is to create the JNLP file that describes the application. Listing 17.5 contains a JNLP file used to distribute the LottoMadness application. Open your word processor and enter the text of this listing, then save the file as LottoMadness.jnlp.

The structure of a JNLP file is similar to the HTML markup required to put a Java applet on a web page. Everything within marks is a tag, and tags are placed around the information the tag describes. There’s an opening tag before the information and a closing tag after it.
For example, Line 7 of Listing 17.5 contains the following text:

In order from left to right, this line contains the opening tag . The text between the tags—LottoMadness Application— is the title of the application, which will be displayed when it is loaded and used in menus and shortcuts.

How to Create Interactive Web Programs with Java
Excerpted from Sams Teach Yourself Programming with Java in 24 Hours by Rogers Cadenhead. ISBN 0672328445, Copyright © 2006. Used with the permission of Sams Publishing.
The difference between opening tags and closing tags is that closing tags begin with a slash (/) character and opening tags do not. In Line 8, is the opening tag, is the closing tag, and these tags surround the name of the vendor who created the application. Place your own name within these tags, taking care not to alter the or tags around it.
Some tags have an opening tag only, such as Line 11:

The tag indicates that the application can be run even if the user is not connected to the Internet. If it was omitted from the JNLP file, the opposite would be true, and the user would be forced to go online before running this application.
In XML, all tags that do not have a closing tag end with /> instead of >.
Tags also can have attributes, which are another way to define information in an XML file. An attribute is a word inside a tag that is followed by an equals sign and some text within quotes.
For example, consider Line 9 of Listing 17.5:

This is the tag, and it has one attribute, href. The text between the quote marks is used to set the value of this attribute to This defines the home page of the application—the web page that users should visit if they want to read more information about the program and how it works.
The LottoMadness JNLP file defines a simple Java Web Start application that does not make use of any Java features that require special permission.
In addition to the tags that have already been described, Listing 17.5 defines other information required by Java Web Start.
Line 1 designates that the file uses XML and the UTF-8 character set. This same line can be used on any of the JNLP files you create for applications.
Line 2 is a comment. Like other comments in Java, it’s placed in the file solely for the benefit of humans. Java Web Start will ignore it.
Lines 3–5 indicate where the JNLP file for this application can be found. The codebase attribute in Line 4 is the URL of the folder that contains the JNLP file. The href attribute in Line 5 is the name of the file. These lines indicate that the file is at the web address LottoMadness.jnlp.
Lines 6 and 12 use the and tags to surround information about the application. Tags can contain other tags in XML: This tag contains , , , , and tags.<br /> Line 10 indicates the location of the program’s icon, which uses the codebase attribute described previously. In this example, the file is at the web address http:// <a href="" rel="nofollow"></a>.<br /> Lines 13 and 16 use the and tags to surround information about resources used by the application.<br /> Line 14 indicates the version of the Java interpreter that should run the application: 1.5, which sets up the application to use Java 2 version 5 (which has the internal version number 1.5)<br /> Line 15 indicates the application’s JAR file. This also uses codebase, so this file is in <a href="" rel="nofollow"></a>.<br /> Line 17 indicates which class file should be run to start the application: LottoMadness. Note that the .class file extension is not specified—only the name of the class itself.<br /> Line 18 ends the definition of this JNLP file. All JNLP files must be contained within an opening tag and a closing tag.<br /> After you have created this file, change Line 4 of Listing 17.5 so that it refers to the folder on a web server where your application’s JAR file, icon file, and JNLP file will be stored.<br /> Upload all three of the files to this folder, then run your browser and load the JNLP file using its full web address. If your web server is configured to support Java Web Start, the application will be loaded and begin running, as in Figure 17.7.<br /> If your server does not support Java Web Start, which is more likely than not because it is a relatively new technology, you may see the text of your JNLP file loaded in a page and the application will not open.</p> <p>A web server must be configured to recognize that JNLP files are a new type of data that should be run as an application, not delivered to the user as text in a browser window. On an Apache web server, the server administrator can support JNLP by adding the following line to the server’s mime-types (or .mime-types) file:<br /> application/x-java-jnlp-file JNLP</p> <p>Summary<br /> Most of the hours in this book focus on applications, primarily because most Java programmers today don’t do a lot of work designing applets for the World Wide Web.<br /> Writing applets is a good way for beginners to develop their skills as Java programmers for the following reasons:<br /> • Applets are usually smaller in scope, making their creation a less daunting task.<br /> • You can find thousands of sample applets on the World Wide Web, including many with the source file available from which to learn.<br /> • You can make applets available to a global audience at low to no cost through the Web, exposing your work to more people who can offer comments and suggestions.<br /> Q&A<br /> Q Is there a reason why the codebase attribute should be used in an applet tag?<br /> A If all Java programs are grouped into their own subfolder, as indicated by codebase, this structure might improve the way a website is organized, but there’s no other reason why using codebase is better than omitting it. The choice is a matter of personal preference.<br /> Q What happens if the height and width specified for an applet don’t leave enough room for the information that is displayed in the paint() method?<br /> A The information will be drawn off-screen, beyond the edges of the applet window, and won’t be visible at any point while the applet runs. Choosing the right dimensions for an applet is largely a matter of trial-and-error until you find the right size for both the height and width attributes of the applet tag. You can’t resize an applet window from within a Java program, so the only way to control its size is by using the height and width attributes. Fortunately, you can change the web page’s HTML without having to recompile the Java program.<br /> Q What is the Peter Principle?<br /> A The principle was an idea popularized in the book The Peter Principle: Why Things Always Go Wrong by Laurence Peter with Raymond Hull.<br /> Peter, a Canadian-born author, psychologist and professor, put forth the following principle: In the workplace, every employee rises to his own level of incompetence.<br /> If an employee does a good job, he is repeatedly promoted until he eventually reaches a level where he cannot do the work—and is no longer promoted.<br /> I was promoted to write computer books in 1996 and have remained in the position for nine years.<br /> Quiz<br /> The following questions test your knowledge of applets.<br /> Questions<br /> 1. What type of argument is used with the paint() method?<br /> • a. A Graphics object<br /> • b. A Graphics2D object<br /> • c. None<br /> 2. Which method is handled right before an applet finishes running?<br /> • a. decline()<br /> • b. destroy()<br /> • c. defenestrate()<br /> 3. Why can’t all variables needed in an applet be created inside the init() method?<br /> • a. The scope of the variables would be limited to the method only.<br /> • b. Federal legislation prohibits it.<br /> • c. They can be created there without any problems.<br /> Answers<br /> 1. a. The Graphics object keeps track of the behavior and attributes needed to display things on-screen in the applet window. You might create a Graphics2 object inside the method, but it isn’t sent as an argument.<br /> 2. b.<br /> 3. a. Variables that are used in more than one method of a class should be created right after the class statement but before any methods begin.<br /> Activities<br /> You can apply your applet programming knowledge with the following activities:<br /> • Write an applet in which the text that is displayed moves each time the applet window is repainted.<br /> • Install the Java Plug-in with your preferred browser, if you’re on a Windows or Solaris system, and try the sample applets provided from Sun’s Java Plug-in page.<br /> To see a Java program that implements the first activity, visit the book’s website at <a href="" rel="nofollow"></a>.<br /> Excerpted from Sams Teach Yourself Programming with Java in 24 Hours by Rogers Cadenhead. ISBN 0672328445, Copyright © 2006. Used with the permission of Sams Publishing.</p> <div class="wpcnt"> <div class="wpa wpmrec"> <span class="wpa-about">Advertisements</span> <div class="u"> <div style="padding-bottom:15px;width:300px;height:250px;float:left;margin-right:5px;margin-top:0px"> <div id="atatags-26942-5b26ef15715f8"> <script type="text/javascript"> __ATA.cmd.push(function() { __ATA.initSlot('atatags-26942-5b26ef15715f8', { collapseEmpty: 'before', sectionId: '26942', width: 300, height: 250 }); }); </script> </div></div> <div style="padding-bottom:15px;width:300px;height:250px;float:left;margin-top:0px"> <div id="atatags-114160-5b26ef15715fa"> <script type="text/javascript"> __ATA.cmd.push(function() { __ATA.initSlot('atatags-114160-5b26ef15715fa', { collapseEmpty: 'before', sectionId: '114160', width: 300, height: 250 }); }); </script> </div></div></div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="postmetabottom"> <div class="tags"></div> <div class="readmore"> <span> <a href="" title="How to Create Interactive Web Programs with JavaComment on ">Comment </a> </span> </div> </div> </div><!-- /post --> <div class="post-74 post type-post status-publish format-standard hentry category-uncategorized" id="post-74"> <div class="posttop"> <h2 class="posttitle"><a href="" rel="bookmark">THE LIFE AND TIME OF MICHEAL JACKSON (1958-2009)</a></h2> <div class="postmetatop"> <div class="categs"> Filed under: <a href="" rel="category tag">Uncategorized</a> — <a href="">Leave a comment</a> </div> <div class="date"><span>October 29, 2010</span></div> </div> </div> <div class="postcontent"> <p></p> <p>Michael Jackson, one of the greatest entertainers ever to walk the earth has kissed the world, which was his playground, good-bye.</p> <p>His death may have been sudden but it has been accompanied with all the glitz that was expected. Like every other human being, he has had his fair share of ups and downs. But like an enigma, he was on the verge of staging a comeback, one of the most remarkable in the history of music, when death came calling.</p> <p><ins>// </ins><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">The 50-year-old musical superstar died on Thursday, just as he was preparing for what would be a series of 50 concerts starting July 13 at London’s famed 02 arena. Jackson had been spending hours and hours toiling with a team of dancers for a performance his fans hoped would restore his tarnished legacy to its proper place in pop.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">Michael died at UCLA Medical Center after being stricken at his rented home in the posh Los Angeles neighborhood of Holmby Hills. Paramedics tried to resuscitate him at his home for nearly three-quarters of an hour, then rushed him to the hospital, where doctors continued to work on him.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">“It is believed he suffered cardiac arrest in his home. However, the cause of his death is unknown until results of the autopsy are known,” his brother Jermaine said.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">Jackson’s death brought a tragic end to a long decline from his peak in the 1980s, when he was popular music’s premier all-around performer.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">His 1982 album Thriller – which included the hits ‘Beat It,’ ‘Billie Jean’ and ‘Thriller’ – is the best-selling album of all time, with an estimated 50 million copies sold worldwide.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">As word of his death spread, TV stations the world over played videos from Jackson’s heyday. Radio stations also played his hits back to back.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">He was known for his backward-gliding moonwalk, his feverish, crotch-grabbing dance moves and his high-pitched singing, punctuated with squeals and titters; single sequined glove, tight, military-style jacket and aviator sunglasses were trademarks, as was his ever-changing appearance.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins>// </ins><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">Michael ranked alongside Elvis Presley and the Beatles as the biggest pop sensations of all time. He united two of music’s biggest names when he was briefly married to Presley’s daughter, Lisa Marie. Jackson’s sudden death immediately evoked comparisons to that of Presley himself, who died at age 42 in 1977.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">“I am so very sad and confused with every emotion possible,” Lisa Marie Presley said in a statement. “I am heartbroken for his children who I know were everything to him and for his family. This is such a massive loss on so many levels, words fail me.”</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">As years went by, Michael’s skin became lighter, his nose narrower, and he spoke in a breathy, girlish voice. He often wore a germ mask while travelling, kept a pet chimpanzee named Bubbles as one of his closest companions and surrounded himself with children at his Neverland ranch, a storybook playland filled with toys, rides and animals. The tabloids named him “Wacko Jacko.”</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">Jackson caused a furor in 2002 when he playfully dangled his infant son, Prince Michael II, over a hotel balcony in Berlin while a throng of fans watched from below.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">In 2005, he was cleared of charges that he molested a 13-year-old cancer survivor at Neverland in 2003. He had been accused of plying the boy with alcohol and groping him, and of engaging in strange and inappropriate behaviour with other children.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">The case followed years of rumours about Jackson and young boys. In a TV documentary, he acknowledged sharing his bed with children, a practice he described as sweet and not at all sexual.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">Michael Joseph Jackson was born August 29, 1958, in Gary, (a Chicago suburb) U.S.A. He was four years old when he began singing with his brothers – Marlon, Jermaine, Jackie and Tito – in the Jackson 5. After his early success, he struck out on his own.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">The peak of his career came sometime in 1983, when Motown celebrated its 25th anniversary with an all-star televised concert and Jackson ‘moonwalked’ off with the show. The audience stood and roared. Jackson raised his fist.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins>// </ins><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">During production of a 1984 Pepsi commercial, Jackson’s scalp sustains burns when an explosion sets his hair on fire.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">He had strong follow-up albums with 1987’s Bad and 1991’s Dangerous, but his career began to collapse in 1993 after he was accused of molesting a boy who often stayed at his home. The singer denied any wrongdoing, reached a settlement with the boy’s family, reported to be $20 million, and criminal charges were never filed.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">Jackson’s expressed anger over the allegations on the 1995 album **HIStory,** which sold more than 2.4 million copies.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">Jackson married Lisa Marie Presley in 1994, and they divorced in 1996. Later that year, Jackson married nurse Deborah Rowe. They had two children together: Michael Joseph Jackson Jr., known as Prince Michael, now 12; and Paris Michael Katherine Jackson, 11. Rowe filed for divorce in 1999.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">Jackson also had a third child, Prince Michael II. now 7. He said the boy, nicknamed Blanket, baby was his biological child born from a surrogate mother.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">After selling more than 61 million albums in the U.S. and having a decade-long attraction open at Disney theme parks, the “King of Pop” died reportedly awash in about $400 million in debt, on the cusp of a final comeback after well over a decade of scandal.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">The moonwalking pop star drove the growth of music videos, vaulting cable channel MTV into the popular mainstream after its launch in 1981. Thriller is still the second best-selling U.S. album of all time. Bad came along five years later and sold 22 million copies. In 1991, he signed a $65 million recording deal with Sony.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins>// </ins><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">One of Jackson’s shrewdest deals at the height of his fame in 1985 was the $47.5 million acquisition of ATV Music, which owned the copyright to songs written by the Beatles’ John Lennon and Paul McCartney. The catalogue provided Jackson a steady stream of income and the ability to afford a lavish lifestyle.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">He bought the sprawling Neverland ranch in 1988 for $14.6 million, a fantasy-like 2,500-acre property nestled in the hills of Santa Barbara County’s wine country.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">But the bombshell hit in 1993 when he was accused of molesting a 13-year-old boy.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">When he ran into further financial problems, he agreed to a deal with Sony in 1995 to merge ATV with Sony’s library of songs and sold Sony music publishing rights for $95 million. Then in 2001, he used his half of the ATV assets as collateral to secure $200 million in loans from Bank of America.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">As his financial problems continued, Jackson began to borrow large sums of money, according to a 2002 lawsuit by Union Finance & Investment Corp. that sought $12 million in unpaid fees and expenses.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">In 2003, Jackson was arrested on charges that he molested another 13-year-old boy. The 2005 trial, which ultimately ended in an acquittal, brought to light more details of Jackson’s strained finances.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">One forensic accountant testified that the singer had an “ongoing cash crisis” and was spending $20 million to $30 million more per year than he earned.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">In March of last year, the singer faced foreclosure on Neverland. He also repeatedly failed to make mortgage payments on a house in Los Angeles that had been used for years by his family.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">In addition, Jackson was forced to defend himself against a slew of lawsuits in recent years, including a $7 million claim from Sheik Abdulla bin Hamad Al Khalifa, the second son of the king of Bahrain.</span></span></ins></p> <p><strong><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="font-size:small;"><span style="color:#008080;">Relevant Links</span></span></span></ins></strong></p> <ul> <li><ins><a href="">West Africa</a></ins></li> <li><ins><a href="">Nigeria</a></ins></li> <li><ins><a href="">U.S., Canada and Africa</a></ins></li> <li><ins><a href="">Music</a></ins></li> <li><ins><a href="">Arts</a></ins></li> </ul> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">Al Khalifa, 33, took Jackson under his wing after his acquittal, moving him to the small Gulf estate and showering him with money.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">In his lawsuit, Al Khalifa claimed he gave Jackson millions of dollars to help shore up his finances, cut an album, write an autobiography and subsidise his lifestyle – including more than $300,000 for a “motivational guru.” The lawsuit was settled last year for an undisclosed amount. Neither the album nor book was ever produced.</span></span></ins></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">Another wealthy benefactor came to Jackson’s aid last year as he faced the prospect of losing Neverland in a public auction.</span></span></ins></p> <p><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;"><ins>Billionaire Thomas Barrack, chairman and CEO of Los Angeles-based real estate investment firm Colony Capital LLC, agreed to bail out the singer and set up a joint venture with Jackson that took ownership of the vast estate.</ins><ins></ins></span></span></p> <p>A final piece of the financial jigsaw puzzle fell into place in March, when billionaire Philip Anschutz’ concert promotion company AEG Live announced it would promote 50 shows in London’s O2 arena. Tickets sold out, and the first show of the ‘This is It’ tour was set for July 8.</p> <p>But the opening date was later postponed to July 13 and some shows moved back to March 2010, fueling speculation that Jackson was suffering from health ailments that could curtail his comeback bid.</p> <p>Jackson, who won 13 Grammys, hadn’t toured since 1997. His last studio album, Invincible, was released in 2001.</p> <p>Apart from his three children, his mum Katherine Jackson, dad, Joe Jackson and his brothers and sisters survive him.</p> <p><ins>// </ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;"><em><ins>Michael inspired a lot of people small and great, so it was no surprise when reactions to his death began to pour in from celebrity friends.</ins></em><ins></ins></span></span></p> <p><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;"><strong><ins>Ice T:</ins></strong><ins> Rest In Peace Mike. People can say what they want but you were 100% original. We will always love, miss and remember your greatness.</ins></span></span></p> <p><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;"><strong><ins>John Mayer:</ins></strong><ins> Dazed in the studio. A major strand of our cultural DNA has left us. RIP MJ. I think we’ll mourn his loss as well as the loss of ourselves as children listening to Thriller on the record player.</ins></span></span></p> <p><ins>// </ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;"><strong><ins>Ludacris:</ins></strong><ins> If it were not for Micheal Jackson I would not be where or who I am today. His music and legacy will live on forever. Prayers to the family. R.I.P.</ins></span></span></p> <p><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;"><strong><ins>MC Hammer:</ins></strong><ins> I have no words. I loved Michael Jackson. R.I.P.</ins></span></span></p> <p><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;"><strong><ins>Kelly Rowland:</ins></strong><ins> Michael you left such a legacy on this earth, have touched SO MANY!!! We thank you for such a driving inspiration in music and our lives! This has got to be one of the saddest days in music history! Michael Rest In Peace! We miss you!</ins></span></span></p> <p><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;"><em><ins>Others who had something to say were:</ins></em><ins></ins></span></span></p> <p><strong><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="font-size:small;"><span style="color:#008080;">Relevant Links</span></span></span></ins></strong></p> <ul> <li><ins><a href="">West Africa</a></ins></li> <li><ins><a href="">Nigeria</a></ins></li> <li><ins><a href="">U.S., Canada and Africa</a></ins></li> <li><ins><a href="">Music</a></ins></li> <li><ins><a href="">Arts</a></ins></li> </ul> <p><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;"><strong><ins>California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger:</ins></strong><ins> Michael was a pop phenomenon who never stopped pushing the envelope of creativity. Though there were serious questions about his personal life, Michael was undoubtedly a great entertainer and his popularity spanned generations and the globe.</ins></span></span></p> <p><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;"><strong><ins>Pop star Beyonce Knowles: </ins></strong><ins>Life is not about how many breaths you take, but about how many moments in life that take your breath away. For anyone who has ever seen, felt, or heard his art, we are all honoured to have been alive in this generation to experience the magic of Michael Jackson. I love you Michael.</ins></span></span></p> <p><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;"><strong><ins>Madonna:</ins></strong><ins> I can’t stop crying over the sad news. I have always admired Michael Jackson. The world has lost one of the greats, but his music will live on forever. My heart goes out to his three children and other members of his family. God bless.</ins></span></span></p> <p><ins><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><span style="color:#008080;">That is it! The King of Pop could not have asked for anything better.</span></span></ins></p> <p><span style="font-family:Calibri;font-size:small;"> </span></p> <div id="atatags-370373-5b26ef15780eb"> <script type="text/javascript"> __ATA.cmd.push(function() { __ATA.initVideoSlot('atatags-370373-5b26ef15780eb', { sectionId: '370373', format: 'inread' }); }); </script> </div> </div> <div class="postmetabottom"> <div class="tags"></div> <div class="readmore"> <span> <a href="" title="THE LIFE AND TIME OF MICHEAL JACKSON (1958-2009)Comment on ">Comment </a> </span> </div> </div> </div><!-- /post --> <div class="post-69 post type-post status-publish format-standard hentry category-uncategorized" id="post-69"> <div class="posttop"> <h2 class="posttitle"><a href="" rel="bookmark">THE GENESIS OF THE WORLD PART 1</a></h2> <div class="postmetatop"> <div class="categs"> Filed under: <a href="" rel="category tag">Uncategorized</a> — <a href="">Leave a comment</a> </div> <div class="date"><span>October 23, 2010</span></div> </div> </div> <div class="postcontent"> <p style="text-align:center;"><strong>The History of Cosmology.</strong></p> <p style="text-align:center;"><strong><em>«And I saw a new heaven and a new earth</em></strong><em>;</em></p> <p style="text-align:center;"><strong><em>because the first heaven and the first earth had disappeared, </em></strong></p> <p style="text-align:center;"><strong><em>and also the sea is not there any more!»</em></strong></p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Just like Jehovah’s Witnesses promise the so-called «other sheep» a paradise here on earth, the church communities obviously assume that the paradise promised in the Bible will be re-established on a <strong><em>renewed earth</em></strong>. This is a misinterpretation of Biblical prophecy and in particular of the Biblical Creation Report that can easily be verified. Already in the apocalypse of John it is emphasised <em>that the present heaven and the present earth will <strong>forever</strong> disappear</em>. John writes:</p> <p style="text-align:justify;"><em>«And I saw a great white throne and him that sat on it; from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away; <strong>and there was found no place for them…And I saw a new heaven and a new earth; for the first heaven and the first earth had disappeared; and there was no more sea…</strong></em></p> <p style="text-align:justify;"><em>And he that sat on the throne said, „Behold, I make all things new!“ And he said to me: „Write! For these words are true and faithful!“ – </em>Rev. 20; 11;  21; 1 and 5.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">It seems almost incomprehensible that at the «end of times» our heaven and our earth and <em>also</em> the sea (!?) should disappear; particularly if one also takes into account the <strong><em>«resurrection from the dead»</em></strong>.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Questions arise for which we search an answer. But it is of no help if due to lack of understanding the following explanations are given in Bible commentaries: Heaven and earth would only <em>disappear</em> so that they can be <strong><em>renewed</em></strong> (Stuttgarter Jubilaeums-Taschenbibel of 1964). (Stuttgart Jubilee Pocket Bible of 1964)</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">If this emergency solution were really true one would have to ask oneself why John whose statements are very precise hasn’t also written down this version! Instead he emphasises:</p> <p style="text-align:justify;"><strong><em>«I saw a new heaven and a new earth; because the first heaven</em></strong></p> <p style="text-align:justify;"><strong><em>and the first earth had disappeared,</em></strong></p> <p style="text-align:justify;"><strong><em>and also the sea is gone,</em></strong></p> <p style="text-align:justify;"><strong><em>and no place was found for them any more».</em></strong><strong> </strong></p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Where can the new heaven, the new earth and paradise be found is a question that can be answered without difficulty; as the explanation is already hidden in the Biblical Creation Report – a divine report transmitted to us in the Genesis which we shall now peruse in detail. Until the cosmological recognitions of the 20th century it was as the following explanations vividly confirm still a long and thorny path full of mistakes and confusions.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;"><strong><em>«In the beginning God created heaven and earth»</em></strong>. For nearly two thousand years this Biblical statement was the foundation of Christian cosmology. Just like ancient cultures believed that the earth was flat Christians believed this until the beginning of the 16th century although Aristotle in the 4th century BC wrote in one of his books that the earth must be round because the border of the earth ‘s shadow visible during an eclipse of the moon always describes an exact circle. Obviously the time was then not ready for such far-reaching recognitions that apparently contradicted all logic. Therefore this knowledge was forgotten during late antiquity and remained so throughout the middle ages. In any case it was not taught in school. The knowledge that the earth was round was certainly of interest only to philosophers, astronomers and mathematicians.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">In the 15th century finally the idea that the earth is round became of speculative interest. When Columbus set out to reach India via the western seaway it was feared that he, the further he sailed westward, would fall into nothing upon reaching the border of the earth with his ships.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">The first available and practical evidence that the earth is round was supplied by the Portuguese navigator, Fernando Magellan (1480-1521), after sailing around the world.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">At the beginning of the 16th century the earth was still considered the centre of the universe around which moon, sun, stars and planets orbited. The knowledge however grew. In 1543, in the year of his death, Nicholas Copernicus published his famous book in which he allocated the sun in the centre of the universe.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Copernicus’ work dealt only with the planets and their orbits. The stars themselves were regarded merely as shining specks stuck to an enormous ball; and the sphere of fixed stars was wrapped around the entire universe with the sun in the centre.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Giordano Bruno (1548-1600) later informed that fixed stars are in reality suns equal to our own in size, strength and brightness. He also recognised that the universe is infinitely larger than the limited system occupied by the solar system. In 1592 he was betrayed and fell into the hands of the inquisition that took him to court particularly because of his teachings concerning the infinity of the world and the multitude of world systems (which were against the science of Aristotle and the Christian cosmology). Bruno was sent to Rome in 1593 where he was burnt at the stake after seven years imprisonment.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Galileo Galilee (1564-1642) discovered in 1609 with a Dutch telescope that he had rebuilt that the star clusters and the milky way consist of individual stars. In a letter to the Benedictine B. Castelli he wrote his view about the relationship between the Bible and the nature discoveries, especially with regard to the heliocentric system (Copernican’s system with the sun in the centre of the planetary system) necessitating a reinterpretation of the Holy Scripture. This lead to a first controversy with the Roman Church at the end of which Cardinal R. Bellarmino (1616) admonished that all of his “deceptions“ were to be given up. When Cardinal Barberini (1616) as Urban VIII ascended the throne, Galilee hoped to find in this learned religious emperor an advocate for the teaching of Copernicus. In 1625 he published arguments for this teaching but without expressly declaring them to be true. He travelled to Rome in 1630 to attain imprimatur for his «dialogue about the two main world systems, the Ptolemean and the Copernican». Due to a delay by the censorship the book was not published until 1632 and withdrawn by the church already in the same year. Galilee was summoned before the inquisition on 1st October 1632 and convicted on account of misdemeanour of an order that was allegedly decided in the year 1616. On 22nd June 1633 he gave up «his error» as a faithful Catholic.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Now at least the Roman Church should have taken the opportunity to welcome the scientific recognition of Galilee and reconsider its existing false interpretation of the Biblical Creation Report. The truth was instead trampled underfoot and upright men with much more knowledge of cosmic relations persecuted.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">The Roman Church however was not able to suppress the truth forever. The cosmological conceptions of science became more precise. By the 18th century the universe was imagined to be a mighty cloud of stars in the shape of a lens appearing like a silver band of the milky way.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Immanuel Kant was the first to interpret the dim nebulas between the stars as foreign milky ways.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">When in 1917 the at that time largest telescope of the world on Mount-Wilson-Observatory in South California, was pointed to the nebula, individual stars were detected in the brightest part of the nebula. At last final evidence of the existence of other milky ways was obtained.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Owing to its narrow-minded perspective, the church was in severe distress. It was no longer considered as being serious. Even worse was the fact that it extensively lost its credibility. It was thus not difficult for the sceptics of the Age of Enlightenment, when the world was changing and one was in search of new values, to turn away from the yoke of the church and to turn toward scientific materialism.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">In the 20th century when people withdrew from the church at an alarming rate and the interest in religious life in the Christian West declined, the church in its plight searched for a solution out of the crisis. Instead of searching for evidence for a belief such as Abraham’s and through trust in God at last – as already demanded by Galilee – welcome a since long required new interpretation of the Biblical Creation Report, the church helplessly went from one extreme to the other. The church is in a hurry obviously in view of the scientific discoveries to ensure that the Genesis merely corresponds to the ancient world view of the Biblical authors and is for this reason no longer applicable for scientific research. Or, as the theologian, Hans Küng, expesses in his book „To be Christ“: the Biblical stories about God’s Creation Report are based on the ancient environment.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">In a five volume strong edition of the Bible recommended by Catholic and Evangelic bishops and appraised by the Austrian Catholic Bible Work, we read the following commentary on the Genesis:</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">«As long as man’s conception of the world was rather uncritical, one was able to read the first chapters of Genesis in view of its essential theological statement and unconcernedly accept its presupposed conception of the world as the natural component of the story. This changed when one started to take scientific interest in the beginnings of the world and mankind and hoped to be able to find an answer in the story of the Bible. A division was inevitable and scientific discoveries had to clash with the naive ancient oriental conception of the world. Creation and paradise myths, deluge stories among many more were the foundation of religious literature in the ancient Orient. Knowing this, Israel had to find a way to make mythological facts coincide with its own experience: The questions that these myths were able to answer were not only of concern to Israel but were of general interest: From where did the world emerge? From where does man come from? From where the evil of the word, if it was created by God? What is the origin of men’s discord, visibly expressed in the confusion of languages? These and similar questions had to be answered by Israel as well.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Israeli theologians provided the answers by comparing the ancient myths with their experience of God and verifying them with their own life experience… From their experience of the present and from personal God experience the Biblical theologians arrived at their own vision of the beginnings in comparison with the myths of the environment… This opinion was put into the story form of the time without any intention of transmitting „how it really was“». 30</p> <p style="text-align:justify;"> </p> <p style="text-align:justify;"><strong>Is the Genesis Actually a Creation of Israeli Theologians?</strong></p> <p style="text-align:justify;">If it were really true that the Genesis is merely the «miserable effort of Israeli Theologians» as suggested in the commentary of Catholic and Evangelic Bishops – a combination of ancient oriental mysticism and Israeli experience – and not, as Jews and Christians have believed since ancient times, the written word of God (2. Peter 1; 21), then this would not only shake Christian belief to its foundations but also the credibility of Jesus himself would be doubtful. Because no less a person than him, the true and faithful witness, has demanded the observation of the historical exactitude of the Old Testament in general (Mt.5; 18; John 10; 35) and the Genesis in particular. (Mt.19; 4; 23; 35; 24; 37).</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Not all theologians have devoted themselves to the unfortunate spirit of the age and succumbed to the immense deceptions of modern times. They have maintained their faith and uninterruptedly adhere to the reliability of Biblical facts (2. Thess 2; 9-12). This applies also to the evangelical religious scientist, Jakob Kroeker. After a detailed examination of the origin and authenticity of the Biblical Creation Report he arrives at the following conclusion:</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">«Israel’s chief goods of revelation were not heathen wine in Israeli tubes, but divine life in human realisation. This also applies to the Biblical Creation Report. Isn’t it unprecedented among all the other cosmogonies of nations, particularly in view of its marvellous simplicity, inner truth and factual solemnity. Isn’t the story of Genesis extensively devoid of all national limitations and mythological speculations and arrays compared to other creation myths!</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">It will be more difficult to answer the question to whom the divine Genesis of the primeval creation was revealed. It can barely be a revelation that was only revealed to a later prophet in Israel: The writer of the Creation Report must have already adopted it from the divine heritage of his nation’s great history. Because the content of his report is much older than the Hebrew nation, whose greatest sons were the embodiment of the prophet of God in ancient history. This is clearly indicated by the cosmogonies of other nations with their frequently distorted mythological creation legends. These legends have lost the purity and magnificence of the original revelation of the primeval creation and have become myths of bizarre fantasy, but in many a creation legend there are certain utterances and imaginations related to the Biblical Creation Report that continue to live on… These and other reminiscences of the distorted creation legends of ancient nations to the Biblical Creation Report allow the assumption that once all have emerged from a mutual tradition. We believe that we should find this primeval tradition when dealing with the first man with God as the creator and Father». 31</p> <p style="text-align:justify;"><strong>Did Noah Possess Pre-Deluge Texts?</strong></p> <p style="text-align:justify;">It will certainly be impossible to trace the origin of the Biblical Creation Report, especially since our investigations chiefly depend on presumptions.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">In Jewish mysticism there is a very interesting aspect concerning the origin of the Biblical Creation Report throwing a completely different light on our problem. First of all it reinforces our presumption that – as Jakob Kroeker later expressed – the Genesis was adopted by the writer of the Biblical Report already as divine heritage from the great history of his nation. According to Jewish tradition, Adam received a book from God after being expelled from paradise which supposedly answers his obsessive questions about the future.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">This divine book also known as «the book of the first man» was handed to Adam by the angel that said:</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">«Adam, stand up and strengthen yourself with courage, you shall not have fear and anxiety but take the book from my hand and take good care of it, as it will give you wisdom and knowledge and you may make it known to anybody who is worthy that it becomes his part<br /> And in the hour that Adam received the book a fire ignited at the bank of the river and the angel rose to heaven in a flame. Then Adam recognised that the messenger was an angel of God and that the book was sent to him by the Holy King. And he kept it in sanctity and purity.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Hennoch stood up four generations after Adam. The place where Adam’s book was hidden was revealed to him in a dream. And the book gave him insight and wisdom. Therefore he knew all about the seasons of the year, the planets and the stars that did their duty every month. He also knew the names of every cycle; he knew the names of the earths, the names of the heavens, the names of the sun and the moon. Hennoch continued to wholeheartedly honour the book and understood all wisdom even better than Adam, the first man. He also foresaw that the generations that were to follow him would have no power to bear the book because it was mighty and magnificent. So he concealed it, and it remained concealed until Noah, the son of Lemechs came a just and innocent man in his line.»32< P></p> <p style="text-align:justify;">According to the transmitted report in the «book of the first man» it is absolutely imaginable that pre-deluge texts about the early beginnings of the history of mankind reached Moses via Noah. The Creation Report must have been among these texts – presumably in cuneiform writing on clay panels – that Moses after Israel’s exodus from Egypt placed at the beginning of his recordings as «sacred heritage of his forefathers».</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Thus the Bible has its very own cosmology that is neither applicable to the myths of ancient times complete with numerous godheads nor to the modern world view of the scientific materialists. For this reason when interpreting the Creation Report care must be taken not to interpret the obsolete philosophy of the antique into the Genesis out of prejudice. If we strictly follow only the wording of the Bible will we be able to conceive the full significance of the divine report and solve problems that to this day appeared insoluble. (Dan.12;4; Rev.13;18; 17;9).</p> <p style="text-align:justify;"><strong>Is our World a Product of Blind Coincidence?</strong></p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Contrary to the clear and unmistakable teaching of the Bible that God is the creator of heaven and earth, the scientific materialists are convinced that the origin of life and the creation of the universe are purely coincidental. They admittedly also presume that everything must have initially had a beginning. Contrary to the Bible that postulates a closed «three-world-system» (1.Mos.1; 2.Petr.3; 2 Cor.12;Rev.21), they believe that the universe was created by the explosion (Big Bang) of high density matter. It still continues to expand. The distances between galaxies and groups of galaxies that emerged after the Big Bang are increasing faster the farther they are apart. Prof. Isaac Asimov assumes the following position in a magazine:</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">«The research results obtained by us indicate that thousands of millions of years ago the entire substance and energy of the universe was compressed to infinite density. This infinite density exploded in an unimaginably tremendous outbreak of energy under extremely hot temperatures – the Big Bang. The temperature of the exploding universe however dropped quickly. Matter developed from the sea of energy that existed first. Matter concentrated as galaxies. In these milky ways on the other hand the mass concentrated as stars – billions of stars in each milky way. Finally our universe developed and while it developed into its present form it cooled down increasingly during many billions of years. Today it is very large, very cold – and still continues to expand.» 33</p> <p style="text-align:justify;"><strong>Is the Nebula Recession an Established Fact?</strong></p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Astrophysicists see proof of the «Big Bang-theory» in the redshift of the spectral lines in the stellar spectrum and define it as Doppler effect. Accordingly the wavelength of light emitting from a mobile light source is perceived by an unmoving observer as larger if the source moves further away, and as smaller if it comes closer. Therefore, they also assume that the redshift is an indicator for the speed at which the galaxies move farther away.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Of course they know that the «Big Bang» cannot be explained by physics; because if one imagines that the unimaginable amount of substance of all galaxies, yes, the entire matter of the whole universe was infinitely concentrated, it is absolutely illusory to obtain any scientifically satisfying concepts about the condition of matter at the time of zero, i. e. at the outbreak of the explosion. They would largely contradict all existing and recognised natural laws. The American scientist and Noble Prize Winner, Steven Weinberg, states:</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">«I cannot deny that I have a slight feeling of unreality when writing about the first three minutes pretending we actually know of what we are talking about.» 34</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Certainly also the global idea of an expanding universe is not accepted without objection, especially as it is absolutely speculative and practically nothing has been verified. Weinberg points out to the following in his book „The First Three Minutes:</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">«I don’t want to give the impression that everybody accepts the interpretation of the redshift. It has actually not been observed that the galaxies are moving farther away from us; in fact we only know for certain that the lines in their spectrums have moved towards the red, that is toward the longer wavelengths. Eminent astronomers doubt that the redshift causes Doppler shifts or an expansion of the universe. Halton Arp of the Hale-Observatory has persistently referred to the fact that groups of galaxies exist in space in which some galaxies show a very deviating redshift: in case the groups should be true physical associations of neighbouring galaxies, they shouldn’t present with hardly any major speed deviations. Apart from this Maarten Schmidt discovered in 1963 that a certain class of objects that look like stars also show enormous redshifts in some instances more than 300 percent! In case the „so-called stellar objects“ are so far away as must be assumed in view of their redshift, it would necessitate an enormous emission of energies for them to appear so bright.» 35</p> <p style="text-align:justify;"><strong>The Universe is not Expanding.</strong></p> <p style="text-align:justify;">According to an article in „Naturwissenschaften“ (Science) (Issue 17 – 1962), a magazine of the Academy of Science in Goettingen, the Soviet physicist, N. P. Suworoff, Moscow, has examined the connection of the Hubble-constant, that describes the apparent expansion of the universe, with the effect that a gravity field has on light quantums:</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">«…Since it has become possible with the help of the Moessbauer-effect to measure extremely small time intervals or energy differences, Pound and Rebka have investigated the speed changes of light quantums in the earth’s gravity field, and discovered that they principally agree with the general theory of relativity.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Suworoff has calculated the effect of the gravity fields of the galaxies on the light quantums that they emit. He discovered that the observed redshift is exclusively due to the gravitational effect. Thus the universe is not expanding. This has also clarified numerous contradictions concerning the age of the universe.» (FAZ – Natur und Wissenschaft dt. 25.9.1962). (FAZ – Nature and Science).</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">The physicist, civil rights campaigner and Nobel Peace Prize Winner, Andrej Sacharov, who also played a leading role in the development of the Soviet hydrogen bomb, stresses the lack of knowledge and unsatisfactory concepts regarding the condition that prevailed before the so-called «Big Bang». He writes:</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">«We cannot explain the modern picture of the universe without possessing specific concepts or at least hypotheses about the conditions that prevailed at the beginning of its evolution. The following questions have not yet been satisfactorily solved:</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">1. What was  b e f o r e  the time of infinite density?</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">2. What was the degree of inhomogeneity of the original „infinitely dense“ substance?</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">3. Did this substance consist of an equal amount of particles and anti-particles,<br /> or was it asymmetrical?</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">4. Was this substance absolutely cold or „infinitely“ hot?</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">5. Did any „primeval“ magnetic field exist?</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">6. Is space flat or „bent“ or does it correspond to<br /> the geometry of Lobatchevski?</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">A clear answer to all these questions cannot be given as we stated already. Their investigation is of utmost necessity as they are the crucial problems of astrophysics.»36</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">The same objections against the Big Bang theory, as submitted by Sacharov in 1968, can be read in the PM-Magazine 3/1997. Under the title: <strong><em>«News about the Big Bang: It never happened»</em></strong> the following questions were raised:</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Problem No. 1: Where did the anti-matter disappear to?</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Problem No. 2: How is it possible that the world is so consistent?</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Problem No. 3: The oldest stars are older than the universe.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Problem No. 4: From where does the structure in the universe come from?</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Problem No. 5: What was before the Big Bang?</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">The «Big Bang theory» established in 1948 by the Russian-born American, George Gamov, and since then taught as „standard model“ at the universities, is also subject to categorical doubt. Substantial doubts have been raised for quite some time; because scientists recently discovered countless new mysterious phenomena that question the Big Bang. Is the explosion in space possibly only an illusion? Astronomers had for instance calculated that the Big Bang must have left behind a kind of „echo“, a weak, but a to this day measurable radiation. In fact: It was coincidentally discovered in 1964 by the US researchers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson. Apparently one more evidence of the Big Bang. But appearances are deceptive: This radiation that according to the theory should be consistent from all directions showed minor irregularities – thus the Big Bang cannot have occurred in this way, as we have assumed….</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Another aspect makes it increasingly difficult for astronomers to arrive at a uniform theory: The abundant data attained by increasingly better telescopes and more ingenious methods. Steven Weinberg, one of the most famous US astronomers and critiques of the Big Bang theory: „The more details we discover about the universe the more difficult it becomes for us to reconcile them.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">As we can gather from the explanations of leading scientists, it is not possible for them despite all endeavours to state something concrete about the origin of the universe. All knowledge that we have to this day gained is either wild speculation – in no other field are there so many speculations as in cosmology – or daring presumptions for which the initial conditions for the development of the universe were partly based on assumptions that contradict the natural laws of current physics.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">It is certainly discouraging for scientists when they have to admit that they have reached the limit of their understanding of science that is fixed by dogmas. But even if they should succeed in achieving clarity about the early conditions of the universe despite all obviously insurmountable difficulties, the decisive questions about the origin of the infinitely dense matter will remain unanswered. Did it develop out of an absolute <strong><em>NOTHING</em></strong>? Did it arise out of itself? Has it always been there? Or, how can its existence be explained from a materialistic point of view?</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Many scientists deny that these questions are meaningful. According to their opinion they are beyond the range of exact sciences. They object that to find an answer one would have to return to a past time that existed even before the Big Bang. This is impossible as the origin of space and time and the laws of physics that describe space-time was the Big Bang.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Prof. Hoimar v. Dithfurt, who has become popular through various TV programmes, expressed the following in his book „In the Beginning was Hydrogen”:</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">«From where does the hydrogen of the beginning come from? is a question that cannot be answered any more scientifically just as little as the already in this book discussed question: What existed before the origin of the world, the Big Bang, and what caused it?».</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Steven Weinberg gives the following suggestion:</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">«Naturally one will ask how big the early universe was. Unfortunately we do not know this and we are uncertain whether this question is meaningful. As indicated in Chapter II it is perfectly possible that the universe is currently infinite and if this is true then it was also infinite at the time of the first picture and will always be infinite. It is also possible that the universe presently has an infinite circumference that has occasionally been estimated at approximately 125 thousand million light-years» 37</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Today’s cosmologians are not omniscient as has been verified by their hypothetical theories about the origin of the universe. Obviously they have reached the limits of their rational conceptions with their materialistically characterised atheistic world view – the «space-time-continuum»</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">The difficulty in exploring the mystery of the creation of the universe as well as the evolution of life lies predominantly in the fact that, although they look over the wall of finity like through a dense veil, their materialistic world view – a world without God – doesn’t allow them to go beyond what is concealed behind the border to metaphysics that for them is strictly out of bounds.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">The well-known Bio-informatic scientist <em>Hubert Yockey</em> writes: «Since science does not dispose of any concept about the evolution of life on earth… it would only be fair to admit this to the scientists, the moneylenders and the general public. Leading scientists that speak ex cathedra should stop polarising the mind of students and younger productive scientists with statements that are exclusively based on faith.» (factum 10/83, p. 23).</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">It appears to even the most engaged representatives of the atheistic theory of evolution that the ideas about «self-organisation of matter» are occasionally unrealistic. As J. Monod stated: <em>«It is absurd and absolutely foolish to believe that a living cell develops by itself; but nevertheless I believe this, because I cannot imagine anything else.»</em> (factum 9/82, p. 15)</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">The English anthropologist and Darwinist Sir Arthur Keith (1866-1955) arrived at the following conclusion: «Evolution is unproved and not provable. We believe this, as its only alternative is the act of creation of a God and that is unthinkable.» (PM 3/1983)</p> <p style="text-align:justify;"><strong>Does a Non-Material, Spiritual Universe Exist?</strong></p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Not all leading scientists have adapted the view of established sciences. The German astronomer, Peter v. d. Osten-Sacken in his book „The New Cosmology“ – Astronomers in Search of the Reality of our World – arrives at the following conclusion regarding these questions:</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">«Let us yet observe another issue. Does an intrinsic non-material sphere exist or can we ultimately attribute everything to physical and chemical processes?… It is not easy to imagine a process without a cause and therefore it is searched for in the spiritual. But if a spiritual sphere exists – substantiated by other criteria – it is not only possible but even likely that in it lies the origin of the universe. Let us view this more concretely: Supposing the universe originated at one point in time and an intrinsic spiritual sphere exists, the origin of this creation could be something unimaginable, different, non-material: many religions describe this as „divine“. Evidently the „divine“ is given attributes that satisfy our intellect. We must consider the fact that they can merely be images that only give a vague description the real, the truth, they can by no means describe it exactly.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Assuming the origin of the primeval creation is non-material this would naturally open the door for corresponding creations in the present and with it an acausality in the natural sphere according to our first limited definition. In this way also the sources of matter could be viewed as a current act of creation by an intellectual force. Because why should this „divine“ something be limited merely to the time of the primeval creation? There is no reason for this. Moreover this would explain all „real miracles“ more easily.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">In the otherwise fairly comprehensible evolution of animated and unanimated nature there are two incidents that present with a „crack“, incidents in the chain of events where a new element arises the origin of which we cannot really justify. On the one hand there is the evolution of life and on the other the evolution of the human „intellect“. It would be too much here to concern ourselves also with this problem. Literature about this subject fills a whole library.» 38</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">Dr. Robert Millikan, Nobel Prize Winner for Physics, has given the following explanations in an interview on current themes of our time:</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">«I believe that it is indeed possible for a scientist not to have any belief at all. But I don’t think it is possible that such a person can actually be a good scientist. Not believing in God he finally has to assume that everything occurs merely coincidentally. It is known that even a novice in any science could never earnestly advocate such a theory.»</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">The essence of the opinion that Millikan further developed is approximately the following: Whoever is familiar with the problems of modern physics and has for half a century had the opportunity to go increasingly deeper into „the matter“ finally arrives at the inevitable conviction that there are at least two universes, speaking in human terms.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">The first is the material world about which we have recently discovered quite a lot, the world of atomic and the stars. The other world is the spiritual world, about we know almost nothing. But the little we know about these spiritual world, force us to believe in it.<br /> We measure space, time, weight and the like. We can transform energy into heat or light and measure this as well. But we can neither produce nor measure goodness, love or self-sacrifice. Nevertheless we know that these things are in some way or other real although they obviously don’t owe their existence to this, our physical world. Since these moral values are real – everything that has an effect is real – but since they did not attain reality from this physical world they must derive from a metaphysical world, from a spiritual universe. (Lippische Landes-Zeitung 187)</p> <p style="text-align:justify;"><strong>The Biblical Creation Report also assumes the existence of a spiritual universe; </strong>because if we read in the Genesis:<em> «At the beginning God created heaven and earth», </em>this does not mean that God originated at the time of creation. This image of God is found in ancient myths. Therefore it can only mean that God was there before he started creation.</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">With this we arrive at the fundamental question of Christian cosmology: Where was God before he created heaven and earth and assumed residence in heaven? (Is. 66; 1-2).</p> <p style="text-align:justify;">This is certainly the most difficult question. If we presume that God is «spirit» and if we out of logical considerations proceed from Millikan’s world view then the only possible answer is that God before he starting creation and before the origin of space and time must have dwelled in a different, unmanifested universe in which neither space nor time has any significance and which is unimaginable for our «limited» possibilities. The Biblical Creation Report, provided we interpret it correctly, gives us the possibility to draw a corresponding picture of  o u r   world:</p> <p style="text-align:justify;"><strong>The First Day of Creation</strong></p> <p style="text-align:justify;"><strong><em>«In the beginning God created heaven and earth</em></strong><em>; but the earth was a desert and barren, and darkness lay over the vast waters (= primeval sea), and the spirit of God moved (pondering) above the surface of the water. And God said: „Let there be light!“ and it became light. And God saw that the light was good; then God divided the light from the darkness and called the light „day“, but he called the darkness „night“. <strong>And it was evening and morning: the first day.» </strong></em></p> <p style="text-align:justify;"> </p> <div data-shortcode="caption" id="attachment_70" style="width: 650px" class="wp-caption alignleft"><a href=""><img data-attachment-id="70" data-permalink="" data-orig-file="" data-orig-size="729,756" data-comments-opened="1" data-image-meta="{"aperture":"0","credit":"","camera":"","caption":"","created_timestamp":"0","copyright":"","focal_length":"0","iso":"0","shutter_speed":"0","title":""}" data-image-title="genesis of the world" data-image-description="" data-medium-file="" data-large-file="" class="size-full wp-image-70" title="genesis of the world" src="" alt="the genesis" width="640" height="663" /></a><p class="wp-caption-text">genesis</p></div> </div> <div class="postmetabottom"> <div class="tags"></div> <div class="readmore"> <span> <a href="" title="THE GENESIS OF THE WORLD PART 1Comment on ">Comment </a> </span> </div> </div> </div><!-- /post --> <div class="post-63 post type-post status-publish format-standard hentry category-uncategorized" id="post-63"> <div class="posttop"> <h2 class="posttitle"><a href="" rel="bookmark">What is the oldest living thing on earth? Who has the secrets to longevity?</a></h2> <div class="postmetatop"> <div class="categs"> Filed under: <a href="" rel="category tag">Uncategorized</a> — <a href="">Leave a comment</a> </div> <div class="date"><span>October 21, 2010</span></div> </div> </div> <div class="postcontent"> <h1 id="yn-title">Astronomers say they’ve found oldest galaxy so far</h1> <div data-shortcode="caption" id="attachment_64" style="width: 223px" class="wp-caption alignleft"><a href=""><img data-attachment-id="64" data-permalink="" data-orig-file="" data-orig-size="213,213" data-comments-opened="1" data-image-meta="{"aperture":"0","credit":"AP","camera":"","caption":"In the center of this Jan. 5, 2010 NASA handout image, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, is a hard-to-see galaxy that European astronomers say is the oldest seen in the universe so far. They used this image to focus a Chilean telescope to look for unique light signatures. (AP Photo\/NASA)","created_timestamp":"1287568834","copyright":"","focal_length":"0","iso":"0","shutter_speed":"0","title":"Oldest Galaxy"}" data-image-title="Oldest Galaxy" data-image-description="<p>In the center of this Jan. 5, 2010 NASA handout image, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, is a hard-to-see galaxy that European astronomers say is the oldest seen in the universe so far. They used this image to focus a Chilean telescope to look for unique light signatures. (AP Photo/NASA)</p> " data-medium-file="" data-large-file="" class="size-full wp-image-64" title="Oldest Galaxy" src="" alt="the oldest thing in the world" srcset=" 213w, 150w" sizes="(max-width: 213px) 100vw, 213px" /></a><p class="wp-caption-text">the oldest thing in the world</p></div> <p>WASHINGTON – Astronomers believe they’ve found the oldest thing they’ve ever seen in the universe: It’s a galaxy far, far away from a time long, long ago.</p> <p>Hidden in a Hubble Space Telescope photo released earlier this year is a small smudge of light that European astronomers now calculate is a galaxy from 13.1 billion years ago. That’s a time when the universe was very young, just shy of 600 million years old. That would make it the earliest and most distant galaxy seen so far.</p> <p>By now the galaxy is so ancient it probably doesn’t exist in its earlier form and has already merged into bigger neighbors, said Matthew Lehnert of the Paris Observatory, lead author of the study published online Wednesday in the journal Nature.</p> <p>“We’re looking at the universe when it was a 20th of its current age,” said <a id="KonaLink0" href="" target="undefined"><span style="color:#366388;">California Institute of Technology</span></a> astronomy professor Richard Ellis, who wasn’t part of the discovery team. “In human terms, we’re looking at a 4-year-old boy in the life span of an adult.”</p> <p>While Ellis finds the basis for the study “pretty good,” there have been other claims about the age of distant space objects that have not held up to scrutiny. And some experts have questions about this one. But even the skeptics praised the study as important and interesting.</p> <p>The European astronomers calculated the age after 16 hours of observations from a telescope in Chile that looked at light signatures of cooling hydrogen gas.</p> <p>Earlier this year, astronomers had made a general estimate of 600 to 800 million years after the Big Bang for the most distant fuzzy points of light in the Hubble photograph, which was presented at an astronomy meeting back in January.</p> <p>In the new study, researchers focused on a single galaxy in their analysis of hydrogen’s light signature, further pinpointing the age. Garth Illingworth of the University of California, Santa Cruz, who was the scientist behind the <a id="KonaLink1" href="" target="undefined"><span style="color:#366388;">Hubble image</span></a>, said it provides confirmation for the age using a different method, something he called amazing “for such faint objects.”</p> <p>The new galaxy doesn’t have a name — just a series of letters and numbers. So Lehnert said he and colleagues have called it “the high red-shift blob. “Because it takes so long for the light to travel such a vast time and distance, astronomers are seeing what the galaxy looked like 13.1 billion years ago at a time when it was quite young — maybe even as young as 100 million years old — Lehnert said. It has very little of the carbon or metal that we see in more mature stars and is full of young, blue massive stars, he said.</p> <p>What’s most interesting to astronomers is that this finding fits with theories about when the first stars and galaxies were born. This galaxy would have formed not too soon after them.</p> <p>“We’re looking almost to the edge, almost within 100 million years of seeing the very first objects,” Ellis said. “One hundred million years to a human seems an awful long time, but in astronomical time periods, that’s nothing compared to the life of the stars.”</p> <p>___</p> <p>Online:</p> <p>Nature: <a href="*"></a></p> <p>___</p> <p>Online:</p> <p><a href="*"></a></p> <div>Follow Yahoo! News on <a href="">Twitter</a>, become a fan on <a href="">Facebook</a></div> <div>other links u can follow are</div> <div><span style="color:#ffff00;"><strong><a href="                         " rel="nofollow">                         </a> <a href="" rel="nofollow"></a></strong></span></div> <div><span style="color:#ffff00;"><strong><a href="                       " rel="nofollow">                       </a> <a href="" rel="nofollow"></a></strong></span></div> <div><span style="color:#ffff00;"><strong><a href="              " rel="nofollow">              </a> <a href="" rel="nofollow"></a></strong></span></div> <div><span style="color:#ffff00;"><strong><a href="                " rel="nofollow">                </a> <a href="" rel="nofollow"></a></strong></span></div> <div><span style="color:#ffff00;"><strong><a href="                  " rel="nofollow">                  </a> <a href="" rel="nofollow"></a></strong></span></div> <div style="text-align:right;"><span style="color:#ff6600;"><strong>powered by: otulana samson</strong></span></div> </div> <div class="postmetabottom"> <div class="tags"></div> <div class="readmore"> <span> <a href="" title="What is the oldest living thing on earth? Who has the secrets to longevity?Comment on ">Comment </a> </span> </div> </div> </div><!-- /post --> <div class="post-57 post type-post status-publish format-standard hentry category-uncategorized" id="post-57"> <div class="posttop"> <h2 class="posttitle"><a href="" rel="bookmark">College Girls Drinking More and Wearing Less & GIRL BORN WITH 4 ARMS, 4 LEGS HAS SUCCESSFUL SURGERY</a></h2> <div class="postmetatop"> <div class="categs"> Filed under: <a href="" rel="category tag">Uncategorized</a> — <a href="">Leave a comment</a> </div> <div class="date"><span>October 20, 2010</span></div> </div> </div> <div class="postcontent"> <p><strong><ins>Boston (dbTechno) – Researchers have found that college girls are drinking a lot more and wearing a lot less at college parties than ever before.</ins></strong></p> <p><strong><ins>The new research has been published in the Thursday edition of the journal Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research. The researchers went to 66 different college parties to try and get a feel for what college life was all about in the modern era.</ins></strong></p> <p><strong><ins>The lead author of the study, John Clapp, director of the Center for Alcohol and Drug Studies and Services at San Diego State University stated that the women were the most notable parts of the college party experience.</ins></strong></p> <p><strong><ins>He stated that “One of the most surprising things to us was the theme-party finding that women drank more at these. We started going to theme parties like toga parties or costume parties, with highly sexualized themes and with the women wearing not very much.”</ins></strong></p> <p><strong><ins>“What was surprising</ins> <ins>was it was one of fre places that we know of that women actually outdrank men; we’re not exactly sure why. It could have something to do with fact that they aren’t dressed.”</ins> <ins></ins></strong></p> <p><strong><ins>The results of the study show that 61.3% of those who responded to the survey stated that they were at a party in college to socialize. 45% were there to have fun and be motivated, while 40% were there to simply get drunk.</ins></strong></p> <p><strong><ins>21% were trying to meet a sexual partner.</ins></strong></p> <p><strong><ins>The basic premise here is that at college parties it is no longer the guys tearing their shirts off and getting drunk, it is the girls doing it more than ever.</ins></strong></p> <p><a href=""><img data-attachment-id="58" data-permalink="" data-orig-file="" data-orig-size="1006,755" data-comments-opened="1" data-image-meta="{"aperture":"0","credit":"","camera":"","caption":"","created_timestamp":"0","copyright":"","focal_length":"0","iso":"0","shutter_speed":"0","title":""}" data-image-title="a girl born with four legged" data-image-description="<p>a girl born with four legged</p> " data-medium-file="" data-large-file="" class="alignleft size-full wp-image-58" title="a girl born with four legged" src="" alt="four legged girl" width="640" height="480" srcset=" 640w, 150w, 300w, 768w, 1006w" sizes="(max-width: 640px) 100vw, 640px" /></a></p> <p style="text-align:justify;"><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;">“In the corner of Bihar, India, she was a miracle. </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;"> Tiny Lakshmi Tatma was born two years ago with four arms and four legs. The local population considered her the manifestation of a goddess. Her parents named her after the four-armed Hindu goddess of wealth. </span></strong><br /> <strong><span style="color:#99cc00;"> A local circus even tried to buy her, but her parents chose health over fame and asked a team of doctors to remove her extra limbs. The surgery, conducted in Bangalore, ended successfully this afternoon. </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;"> “The child has withstood the procedure in an excellent manner,” Dr. Sharan Patil, the team leader who planned the surgery for more than a month, told reporters outside the Sparsh Hospital. “This girl can now lead as good a life as anyone else.” </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;"> It took more than 30 surgeons 27 hours to not only remove two of Lakshmi’s arms and two of her legs but also to rebuild much of her body and save her organs. They say the chances of death were as high as 25 percent. </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;"> The cost of such a complex procedure would have been $625,000, far too great for the Lakshmi’s family to afford. The hospital’s foundation paid. </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;"> “We are very grateful to all the doctors for seeing our plight and deciding to help us,” Tatma’s father, Shambhu, told The Associated Press. </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;"> The doctors “worked relentlessly through the night to make the operation successful,” Patil said, adding there had been “no setback at any stage of the surgery.” </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;"> Half a Twin</span></strong><br /> <strong><span style="color:#99cc00;"> Lakshmi is essentially one half of a conjoined twin without a living sibling. Her condition is called ischiopagus. In the womb, a “parasitic twin” stopped developing, but Lakshmi absorbed its arms and legs, its kidneys, its stomach and chest cavities as well as a series of nerves. </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;"> The surgery removed the extra body parts and unfused Lakshmi’s spine from her twin’s. To rebuild her pelvis, surgeons used tissue from the twin. And to save her kidney, doctors said, they had to remove it from the “parasitic abdomen” and move it into Lakshmi’s own abdomen. She may still need more surgeries. </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;"> Conjoined twins occur in about one in every 200,000 births, and their survival rate can be as low as 5 percent.” </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;"> ***</span></strong><br /> <strong><span style="color:#99cc00;"> Well, I hope Lakshmi recovers. I like that she is considered a manifestation of a goddess. She has such a quiet, beautiful face.</span></strong></p> </div> <div class="postmetabottom"> <div class="tags"></div> <div class="readmore"> <span> <a href="" title="College Girls Drinking More and Wearing Less & GIRL BORN WITH 4 ARMS, 4 LEGS HAS SUCCESSFUL SURGERYComment on ">Comment </a> </span> </div> </div> </div><!-- /post --> <div class="post-54 post type-post status-publish format-standard hentry category-uncategorized" id="post-54"> <div class="posttop"> <h2 class="posttitle"><a href="" rel="bookmark">NEW JOB HAS ARRIVE NOW, SEE PUNCH FOR MORE DETAILS</a></h2> <div class="postmetatop"> <div class="categs"> Filed under: <a href="" rel="category tag">Uncategorized</a> — <a href="">Leave a comment</a> </div> <div class="date"><span>October 19, 2010</span></div> </div> </div> <div class="postcontent"> <p>Please your letter of interest with the above, in sealed envelopes marked “PROJECT MANAGEMENT” at the back for Proect Management firms and “IT INFRASTRUTURE” at the back IT I Nfrastructuaral firms and addressed to:</p> <p>The Executive Sectetary,</p> <p>NIGERIAN CONTENT DEVELOPMENT & MONITORING BOARD</p> <p>Revenue House,</p> <p>Lambert Eradiri Road, Yenagoa State</p> <p>Submission Close 2p.m October 15, 2010.</p> <p>Signed</p> <p>The Executive Secretary,</p> <p>NIGERIA CONTENT DEVELOPMENT AND MONITORING BOARD</p> <p>Yenagoa. Bayelsa State.</p> <hr /> </div> <div class="postmetabottom"> <div class="tags"></div> <div class="readmore"> <span> <a href="" title="NEW JOB HAS ARRIVE NOW, SEE PUNCH FOR MORE DETAILSComment on ">Comment </a> </span> </div> </div> </div><!-- /post --> <div class="post-51 post type-post status-publish format-standard hentry category-uncategorized" id="post-51"> <div class="posttop"> <h2 class="posttitle"><a href="" rel="bookmark">What Would You Do If Your Mum Walks Your Girlfriend Out Of Your Flat ?</a></h2> <div class="postmetatop"> <div class="categs"> Filed under: <a href="" rel="category tag">Uncategorized</a> — <a href="">Leave a comment</a> </div> <div class="date"><span></span></div> </div> </div> <div class="postcontent"> <p style="text-align:justify;"><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;">Ok guys here is what happened over the weekend.</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;">I have a girl who comes around from time to time & spends about three , four or five days at my place , she doesn’t live with me but she has a few things at my crib. She’s a student , in her second year & usually spends a couple of days @ my place before going home from school or before she goes to school from home. She’s my all & we’ve been dating for a year , I have introduced to my family & she , me to hers. We are well known by friends & family alike & I have actually proposed to her.</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;">Ok , so last week Tuesday she comes from school & decides to spend a week @ my place before going home. Thursday comes & my mum pays a surprise three day visit ( for the weekend ) , by the way she looked I could see she was not so happy that my girlfriend had been @ my place since Tuesday ( they got talking & she asked how long she has been around ) but she never says anything.</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;">I was surprised to receive a call from my girl Friday noon @ work that my mum told her to leave the house with her things & not come stay over until we are legally married. The thing now is she now has doubts about the whole thing & she won’t step into my place again cos of the humiliation she received.</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;">What I’d like to know now is</span></strong><br /> <strong><span style="color:#99cc00;">is it wrong for my girlfriend to stay over @ my place for a while?</span></strong><br /> <strong><span style="color:#99cc00;">Can I stop my mum from coming over unless she’s invited , cos honestly I’m not really feeling her on this.</span></strong><br /> <strong><span style="color:#99cc00;">If I decide to stop my mum from coming over , what reactions should I expect from my family?</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;">Na wa for all this Deeper life kind of mothers</span></strong></p> </div> <div class="postmetabottom"> <div class="tags"></div> <div class="readmore"> <span> <a href="" title="What Would You Do If Your Mum Walks Your Girlfriend Out Of Your Flat ?Comment on ">Comment </a> </span> </div> </div> </div><!-- /post --> <div class="post-45 post type-post status-publish format-standard hentry category-uncategorized" id="post-45"> <div class="posttop"> <h2 class="posttitle"><a href="" rel="bookmark">IFEANYI HOOKS UCHE</a></h2> <div class="postmetatop"> <div class="categs"> Filed under: <a href="" rel="category tag">Uncategorized</a> — <a href="">Leave a comment</a> </div> <div class="date"><span>October 18, 2010</span></div> </div> </div> <div class="postcontent"> <p style="text-align:center;"><strong><span style="color:#993300;">HURRAH!  HURRAH!! HURRAH!!!</span></strong></p> <p style="text-align:center;"><span style="color:#ff6600;">AS IFEANYI WEDS UCHE</span></p> <p style="text-align:center;"><span style="color:#ff6600;">HAPPY MARRIED LIFE</span></p> <p style="text-align:center;"> </p> <p> </p> <div data-shortcode="caption" id="attachment_46" style="width: 571px" class="wp-caption alignnone"><a href=""><img data-attachment-id="46" data-permalink="" data-orig-file="" data-orig-size="561,399" data-comments-opened="1" data-image-meta="{"aperture":"0","credit":"","camera":"","caption":"","created_timestamp":"0","copyright":"","focal_length":"0","iso":"0","shutter_speed":"0","title":""}" data-image-title="IFEANYI AND UCHE" data-image-description="<p>WHAT GOD HAS JOINED TOGETHER LET NO MAN PUT ASSUNDER</p> " data-medium-file="" data-large-file="" class="size-full wp-image-46" title="IFEANYI AND UCHE" src="" alt="HAPPY MARRIED LIFE" srcset=" 561w, 150w, 300w" sizes="(max-width: 561px) 100vw, 561px" /></a><p class="wp-caption-text">MAY GOD BLESS YOUR MARRIAGE</p></div> <p> </p> </div> <div class="postmetabottom"> <div class="tags"></div> <div class="readmore"> <span> <a href="" title="IFEANYI HOOKS UCHEComment on ">Comment </a> </span> </div> </div> </div><!-- /post --> <div class="post-41 post type-post status-publish format-standard hentry category-uncategorized" id="post-41"> <div class="posttop"> <h2 class="posttitle"><a href="" rel="bookmark">I Beg My Husband For Sex —housewife</a></h2> <div class="postmetatop"> <div class="categs"> Filed under: <a href="" rel="category tag">Uncategorized</a> — <a href="">Leave a comment</a> </div> <div class="date"><span></span></div> </div> </div> <div class="postcontent"> <p style="text-align:justify;"><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;">A petty trader, Mrs. Kate Ude, has narrated to an Ojo Grade ‘A’ Customary Court, Ojo,  Lagos, how she begs, cajoles and pleads with her husband to have intimacy with her.</span></strong></p> <p style="text-align:justify;"><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;">The mother of two who revealed this in a divorce suit she filed against her husband in  suit number OCCA/054/2010, added that all her pleas  to enjoy her conjugal rights always  fall on her husband’s deaf ears.</span></strong></p> <p style="text-align:justify;"><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;">She said that instead, her husband would turn her into a punching bag at every slightest  provocation, a situation she told the court she can no longer put up with.</span></strong></p> <p style="text-align:justify;"><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;">“He denies me my conjugal rights with him. I have to beg, cajole and plead with him. Yet  he would not let me enjoy the warmth of his strong areas around my cold body.</span></strong></p> <p style="text-align:justify;"><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;">“He does not allow me access to our matrimonial bed any longer. I sleep in the sitting  room with the kids while he enjoys the comfort of our bedroom all alone,” she lamented in  court.</span></strong></p> <p style="text-align:justify;"><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;">She said that lack of trust and understanding have destroyed their blissful marriage,  while she further accused her husband of not providing for the upkeep of the family.</span></strong></p> <p style="text-align:justify;"><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;">“My husband does not trust or understand me at all. He suspects every move I make both at  home and in my shop. I was once a fashion designer gathering the little money I make to  support him financially, but he callously packed my sewing machines and sent them to the  village, leaving me empty handed.</span></strong></p> <p style="text-align:justify;"><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;">“Yet, he would not provide money for me and our kids. I single handedly pay the  children’s school fees and then sometimes pay the house rent. I was frustrated when he  sent my sewing machines to the village. So, I managed to source for money to start  selling foodstuff.</span></strong></p> <p style="text-align:justify;"><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;">“After all my efforts, my ever jealous husband mistook my contribution as an avenue for  me to make money and take over his authority as the head of the family and defy his  order. His argument was that when women become richer than their husbands they would  start disrespecting them,” she said.</span></strong></p> <p style="text-align:justify;"><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;">She prays the court to grant her prayers for the dissolution of the marriage and grant  her the custody of their two kids for proper motherly care.</span></strong></p> <p style="text-align:justify;"><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;">In his reaction to all the allegations levelled against him, her husband, Stephen Ude,  told the court that he has nothing to say but maintained that he still loves his wife  dearly and wants her back by all means.</span></strong></p> <p style="text-align:justify;"><strong><span style="color:#99cc00;">The court president, Alhaji T. A. Saeed, after listening to both parties, adjourned the  matter till a later date for further hearing.</span></strong></p> </div> <div class="postmetabottom"> <div class="tags"></div> <div class="readmore"> <span> <a href="" title="I Beg My Husband For Sex —housewifeComment on ">Comment </a> </span> </div> </div> </div><!-- /post --> <div class="post-36 post type-post status-publish format-standard hentry category-uncategorized" id="post-36"> <div class="posttop"> <h2 class="posttitle"><a href="" rel="bookmark">PICTURE OF MY FACEBOOK FRIENDS ON TELLEME</a></h2> <div class="postmetatop"> <div class="categs"> Filed under: <a href="" rel="category tag">Uncategorized</a> — <a href="">Leave a comment</a> </div> <div class="date"><span>October 16, 2010</span></div> </div> </div> <div class="postcontent"> <p> </p> <div data-shortcode="caption" id="attachment_32" style="width: 60px" class="wp-caption alignnone"><a href=""><img data-attachment-id="32" data-permalink="" data-orig-file="" data-orig-size="50,50" data-comments-opened="1" data-image-meta="{"aperture":"0","credit":"","camera":"","caption":"","created_timestamp":"0","copyright":"","focal_length":"0","iso":"0","shutter_speed":"0","title":""}" data-image-title="TRSUT ECHI" data-image-description="" data-medium-file="" data-large-file="" class="size-full wp-image-32" title="TRSUT ECHI" src="" alt="" /></a> </p> <div class="mceTemp"> <dl class="wp-caption alignnone"> <dt class="wp-caption-dt"><a href=""><img data-attachment-id="31" data-permalink="" data-orig-file="" data-orig-size="50,50" data-comments-opened="1" data-image-meta="{"aperture":"0","credit":"","camera":"","caption":"","created_timestamp":"0","copyright":"","focal_length":"0","iso":"0","shutter_speed":"0","title":""}" data-image-title="ADAMS SANNI" data-image-description="" data-medium-file="" data-large-file="" class="size-full wp-image-31" title="ADAMS SANNI" src="" alt="THE BIGGEST BOY ON CAMPUS" /></a><p class="wp-caption-text">U AR TOO MUCH</p></div> <p> </p> </dt> <dd class="wp-caption-dd"><a href=""><img data-attachment-id="30" data-permalink="" data-orig-file="" data-orig-size="50,50" data-comments-opened="1" data-image-meta="{"aperture":"0","credit":"","camera":"","caption":"","created_timestamp":"0","copyright":"","focal_length":"0","iso":"0","shutter_speed":"0","title":""}" data-image-title="ATINUKE ROSALNIE" data-image-description="" data-medium-file="" data-large-file="" class="alignnone size-full wp-image-30" title="ATINUKE ROSALNIE" src="" alt="ANGEL" /></a><a href=""><img data-attachment-id="28" data-permalink="" data-orig-file="" data-orig-size="50,50" data-comments-opened="1" data-image-meta="{"aperture":"0","credit":"","camera":"","caption":"","created_timestamp":"0","copyright":"","focal_length":"0","iso":"0","shutter_speed":"0","title":""}" data-image-title="OLUMIDE OTULANA" data-image-description="" data-medium-file="" data-large-file="" class="alignnone size-full wp-image-28" title="OLUMIDE OTULANA" src="" alt="GOD FATHER" /></a><a href=""><img data-attachment-id="27" data-permalink="" data-orig-file="" data-orig-size="50,50" data-comments-opened="1" data-image-meta="{"aperture":"0","credit":"","camera":"","caption":"","created_timestamp":"0","copyright":"","focal_length":"0","iso":"0","shutter_speed":"0","title":""}" data-image-title="MODUPE OTULANA" data-image-description="" data-medium-file="" data-large-file="" class="alignnone size-full wp-image-27" title="MODUPE OTULANA" src="" alt="GREAT SISTER" /></a><a href=""><img data-attachment-id="26" data-permalink="" data-orig-file="" data-orig-size="50,50" data-comments-opened="1" data-image-meta="{"aperture":"0","credit":"","camera":"","caption":"","created_timestamp":"0","copyright":"","focal_length":"0","iso":"0","shutter_speed":"0","title":""}" data-image-title="ONABOTE TOMISIN" data-image-description="" data-medium-file="" data-large-file="" class="alignnone size-full wp-image-26" title="ONABOTE TOMISIN" src="" alt="HOTEST BABE ON CAMPUS" /></a><a href=""><img data-attachment-id="25" data-permalink="" data-orig-file="" data-orig-size="50,50" data-comments-opened="1" data-image-meta="{"aperture":"0","credit":"","camera":"","caption":"","created_timestamp":"0","copyright":"","focal_length":"0","iso":"0","shutter_speed":"0","title":""}" data-image-title="OLLYMAN " data-image-description="" data-medium-file="" data-large-file="" class="alignnone size-full wp-image-25" title="OLLYMAN " src="" alt="COMPUTER ENGINEERING" /></a> </p> <p> </p> <div data-shortcode="caption" id="attachment_24" style="width: 60px" class="wp-caption alignnone"><a href=""><img data-attachment-id="24" data-permalink="" data-orig-file="" data-orig-size="50,50" data-comments-opened="1" data-image-meta="{"aperture":"0","credit":"","camera":"","caption":"","created_timestamp":"0","copyright":"","focal_length":"0","iso":"0","shutter_speed":"0","title":""}" data-image-title="OTULANA IYABODE ANIKE " data-image-description="" 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